Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Calcium and phosphorus deficiencies can lead to abnormal skeletal development, or rickets in the growing chick, and osteoporosis in older birds. Phosphorus is an essential mineral for all animals, as it plays a major role in the formation of the skeletal system, and is necessary for many biological processes including: energy metabolism, protein synthesis, cell signaling, and lactation. In cattle, transient hypophosphatemia is commonly seen during the periparturient period, particularly in high-yielding dairy cows. Phosphorus deficiency is difficult to diagnose, and by the time it is recognised it may be too late to do anything. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Cattle: lower feed utilisation and intake, reduced fertility, irregular or suppressed ovulation, and lower conception rates. Fractures of ribs, vertebrae, or the pelvis, as well as widened growth plates and costochondral junctions, angular deformities, and shortened long bones are common. Hypophosphatemia without phosphorus depletion may occur after oral or parenteral carbohydrate administration and after parenteral insulin administration as a result of increased cellular phosphorus uptake in combination with glucose. Phosphorus plays a key metabolic role and has more physiological functions than any other mineral. Organophosphate-induced intermediate syndrome (IMS) has been seen in people and animals (particularly dogs and cats) acutely poisoned with a massive dose of an OP insecticide. Bone breakage causes major problems during both production and processing, affecting meat quality; birds developing rickets result in total economic loss. Hypophosphatemia in the strict sense of the term refers to subnormal phosphorus concentrations in blood. Clinical signs of poisoning are hemorrhage (bleeding) which usually occurs about 2-3 days after consumption. Poor bone formation including stunted growth and broken bones. Plants have stunted roots, and are stunted and spindly. Phosphine is known to be an occupational hazard at .3 ppm and can be tolerated by people and some animals in the range of 1.5 - 3 ppm. The phosphorus content in fresh bone is therefore a good indicator of body phosphorus reserves but not of current dietary phosphorus supply. It follows that the phosphorus concentration in serum or plasma will not reliably reflect the phosphorus homeostasis of the organism. Currently, no effective approach to prevent hypophosphatemia and phosphorus depletion at the onset of lactation is known. In addition, environmental considerations to ensure the lowest possible environmental impact are increasingly being taken into account. Feeding higher amounts of dietary phosphorus during the last weeks of gestation is contraindicated, because it decreases the intestinal absorption rate of phosphorus and increases the risk of periparturient hypocalcemia. As a result, symptoms of phosphorus toxicity when they do occur are actually symptoms of iron and/or zinc deficiency. Mineral toxicity is generally observed by decreased animal performance, anorexia, weight loss, and diarrhea. Ironically, most dogs in kidney failure produce large quantities of urine, but the body's toxic wastes are … This allows one to more economical use of expensive element … J Appl Toxicol 14 (2), 145-152 PubMed. It can occur at any age but is more common in puppies or old dogs with kidney problems. Phosphorus depletion can also result from chronic renal tubular disease due to impaired renal reabsorption of phosphorus (eg, Fanconi syndrome) or primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism causing increased renal phosphorus excretion. Phosphate salts used for this purpose are mono- or disodium phosphate. For specific species, these include: Laying hens: reduced egg yield, as well as a reduction in shell thickness and hatchability; often accompanied by “cage... Broilers: leg weakness and bone breakage, as well as tibial dyschondroplasia, osteomalacia and rickets. IV treatment of hypophosphatemia may be indicated in patients with chronic vomiting. There is very little information on the effects of excessive intakes of phosphorus per se in dogs and cats. Other symptoms include reduced milk yield, lameness, stiffness of gait and, in severe instances, enlarged and deformed joints and bones. Calcium and P make up about 50 percent of the ash of milk. Maintaining a correct Ca:P ratio is essential to ensure that the skeleton of the bird develops sufficiently to support optimum egg yield. This is often referred to as biologically “digestible” or “available” phosphorus. In cattle, rapid administration of sodium phosphate salt solutions has been recommended in the older literature. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats (2006): National Academies Press, Washington, USA. verify here. The most common cause of chronic phosphorus deficiency is inadequate feed intake or inadequate phosphorus content in the diet over an extended time. Phosphorus deficiency is rare, but it can lead to some complications. It may result in poor mineralisation of the bones, and a deficient nerve and brain function. Phosphorus Deficiency Symptoms. Organophosphorus compounds with various aspects of their modes of action, toxicity and antidotal treatment have been briefly reviewed. 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